Tuesday, October 29, 2013

Palm Kernel Oil – not such an underdog!

A reader left a comment on this post about how an American company (Ojon) based its product line on Palm Oil because they have discovered that it is really beneficial to hair and skin. My interested was piqued and I wanted to find out more.

I went over to the Ojon website and was a bit confused when I started reading about a “golden elixir” “500 year old tradition”. They described the indigenes of the place where this elixir was made this way: ”They all had remarkably healthy, shiny hair.” It made their “skin … radiant, smooth and supple”.

The process for making this elixir was described here and as I read it, I realized what it really was. Apparently, despite recognizing its benefits even Ojon hasn’t named it right. It is Palm Kernel Oil and not Palm Oil.

Source

I have processed Palm Oil from Palm Nuts for my local homemade Ofe Akwu (Palm Nut Soup). I have also had the pleasure of cracking palm kernel nuts (we ate them as a snack) in my grandma’s village house when I was much younger so I know what is what. What Ojon has in its products is not Palm Oil. I have explained the difference before in this post.

Reading how they described Palm Kernel oil, making it sound uber exotic highlighted the fact that we really need to sit up and start valuing what we have in this country. Now that Ojon has caught on to the fact that Palm Kernel Oil is really good for hair and skin, the rest of the world will begin to look into it.

That is what happened with Shea Butter. We have had it locally available for eons but at a point started overlooking its importance until foreigners pointed it out to us. Now everyone is back to using Shea Butter and extolling its many benefits.

I have often said that Palm Kernel Oil is similar to Coconut Oil. The Beauty Brains summarizes it as: The fatty acid distribution of oil obtained from palm nuts is very similar to coconut oil and can be used in place of it with virtually no difference in chemistry.

What more can one say? Use Palm Kernel oil in your hair and skin care. You may benefit greatly from it. Also, if you know the guys at Ojon, please let them know that they can get Palm Kernel Oil for cheap in Nigeria. I can even point them to the sources for free. Lord knows our economy needs it!

As my people would say: Wetin dey for Sokoto, e dey for Shokoto. (What we are looking for far away is actually in our backyard).

Just had to mention: We have had Palm Kernel Oil available in the Ahia for months but most folks don’t even ask for it (maybe because of its nutty smell). It is the cheapest oil we have and yet very much overlooked. Hopefully, it won’t be for much longer.
Blood lipid and cholesterol effects

According to studies reported on by the Center for Science in the Public Interest , excessive intake of palmitic acid, which makes up 44 percent of palm oil, increases blood cholesterol levels and may contribute to heart disease.[89] Several studies have linked palm oil and cardiovascular disease including a 2005 study conducted in Costa Rica which indicated that replacing palm oil in cooking with polyunsaturated non hydrogenated oils could reduce the risk of heart attacks, and a 2011 analysis of 23 countries which showed that for each kilogram of palm oil added to the diet annually there was an increase in ischemic heart disease deaths though the increase was much smaller in high-income countries.

However, results from several studies indicate that palm oil provides health benefits, including increasing good cholesterol and reducing bad cholesterol, and that consumption of palm oil does not increase the risk of cerebrovascular disease Additionally, a 1993 study published by the United Nations University Press found that consumption of palmitic acid appeared to have no impact on cholesterol levels when daily cholesterol intake is below 400 mg per day.


The CSPI also reported that the World Health Organization and the US National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute have encouraged consumers to limit the consumption of palmitic acid and foods high in saturated fat. In response to negative reports on palm oil many food manufacturers transitioned to using hydrogenated vegetable oils in their products, which have also come under scrutiny for the impact these oils have on health.
A 2006 study supported by the National Institutes of Health and the USDA Agricultural Research Service concluded that palm oil is not a safe substitute for partially hydrogenated fats (trans fats) in the food industry, because palm oil results in adverse changes in the blood concentrations of LDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein B just as trans fat does.



However, according to two reports published in 2010 by the Journal of the American College of Nutrition palm oil is again an accepted replacement for hydrogenated vegetable oils and a natural replacement for partially hydrogenated vegetable oils, which are a significant source of trans fats. Palm oil is also an important source of calories and a food staple in poor communities.

Human use of oil palms may date as far back as 5,000 years;

in the late 1800s, archaeologists discovered a substance that they concluded was originally palm oil in a tomb at Abydos dating back to 3,000 BCE.[20] It is believed that Arab traders brought the oil palm to Egypt.[21]

Palm oil from Elaeis guineensis has long been recognized in West and Central African countries, and is widely used as a cooking oil. European merchants trading with West Africa occasionally purchased palm oil for use as a cooking oil in Europe. Palm oil became a highly sought-after commodity by British traders, for use as an industrial lubricant for machinery during Britain's Industrial Revolution.[22]

Palm oil formed the basis of soap products, such as Lever Brothers' (now Unilever) "Sunlight" soap, and the American Palmolive brand.[23] By around 1870, palm oil constituted the primary export of some West African countries such as Ghana and Nigeria although this was overtaken by cocoa in the 1880s.[citation needed]
Nutrition
Further information: Palmitic acid

Many processed foods contain palm oil as an ingredient.[24] The USDA agricultural research service states that palm oil is not a healthy substitute for trans fats.[25] Much of the palm oil that is consumed as food is to some degree oxidized rather than in the fresh state, and this oxidation appears to be responsible for the health risk associated with consuming palm oil.[26]

Palm oil is composed of fatty acids, esterified with glycerol like all fat. Unlike all fat, it is high in saturated fatty acids, which are solid at room temperature.[27] Palm oil gives its name to the 16-carbon saturated fatty acid palmitic acid. Monounsaturated oleic acid is also a constituent of palm oil. Unrefined palm oil is a large natural source of tocotrienol, part of the vitamin E family.[28]

According to the World Health Organization, evidence is convincing that consumption of palmitic acid increases risk of developing cardiovascular diseases, placing it in the same evidence category as trans fatty acids.[29] Trans fats are also solid at room temperature.[27]

The approximate concentration of fatty acids in palm oil is:[30]
What is Virgin Red Palm Oil? Virgin Palm Oil is palm oil that is traditionally made and maintains the natural nutrients of carotenes (precursors to Vitamin A) and the antioxidant tocotrienols (Vitamin E). Typical RBD (Refined, Bleached, and Deodorized) palm oil has these nutrients stripped from them resulting in a clear oil. In its natural state, palm oil is red in color due to a high concentration of carotenes and tocols. Palm oil comes from a tropical palm tree (elaeis guineensis - NOT the same as coconut palm trees), which is native to the tropical areas of Africa, where it grows wild. It is a traditional oil used for more than 5000 years in African countries, where small-scale family farms flourish. The palm oil palm was introduced to South East Asia in the early 1900s, and Malaysia is now the world leader in exports of palm oil (Tropical Traditions does NOT source palm oil from there.) Being an introduced crop to Asia, they are mainly harvested from large plantations. Tropical Traditions Virgin Palm Oil comes from West Africa, NOT South East Asia. Our Virgin Palm Oil is produced by small-scale family producers in Africa. When you purchase Tropical Traditions Virgin Palm Oil, you are supporting small scale family producers in Africa, and NOT large corporate plantations in South East Asia. Read the history of Palm Oil here. Palm Oil: The Number 1 Dietary Oil for the Rest of the World Although scarcely used in the US, palm oil is the most heavily consumed dietary oil in the world after soybean oil. If one were to exclude the U.S. where most of the world’s soybean oil is consumed, palm oil would be the most popular dietary oil in the world. Palm oil traditionally has been used for baking, shortenings, margarines and deep fat frying, as it is shelf stable with a high melting point and does NOT require hydrogenation. Therefore, it contains no trans fatty acids. Advantages of Virgin Red Palm Oil High Stability To Oxidation Oils and fats generally are susceptible to attack by atmospheric oxygen, resulting in rancidity. Virgin Palm Oil contains tocols (Vitamin E) which are powerful natural antioxidants. Therefore, it has exceptional resistance to rancidity. Virgin Palm Oil is known for its excellent stability at high temperatures. Vitamin E - The Tocotrienols: Super Anti-oxidants Vitamin E is one of the most important phytonutrients in edible oils. It consists of eight naturally occurring isomers, a family of four tocopherols (alpha, beta, gamma and delta) and four tocotrienols (alpha, beta, gamma and delta) homologues. While most Vitamin E supplements on the market today are composed of the more common tocopherols, tocotrienols are believed to be a much more potent antioxidant than tocopherols. Tocotrienols are naturally present in most plants, however they are found most abundantly in palm oil extracted from palm fruits. Other sources are rice, wheat germ, oat and barley. It has been shown by published research that alpha-tocotrienol is more potent than alpha-tocopherol as a form of Vitamin E. Since tocotrienols are a form of Vitamin E found less abundantly in nature than tocopherols, the research on this super anti-oxidant is still recent and ongoing. It is predicted that tocotrienols will become recognized as the new super anti-oxidant in the very near future. Virgin Palm Oil is one of your best sources for Vitamin E. Most Vitamin E supplements and skin care products on the market today are soy-based.

Improves blood circulation Protects against heart disease Protects against cancer Boosts immunity

Palm oil has been used as both a food and a medicine for thousands of years. It was prized by the pharaohs of ancient Egypt as a sacred food. Today palm oil is the most widely used oil in the world. In tropical Africa and Southeast Asia palm oil is an integral part of a healthy diet just as olive oil is in the Mediterranean. Palm oil possesses excellent cooking properties. It is more heat stable than other vegetable oils and imparts in foods and baked goods superior taste, texture, and quality. Palm oil is one of the world’s healthiest oils. As a natural vegetable oil, it contains no trans fatty acids or cholesterol. It is currently being used by doctors and government agencies to treat specific illnesses and improve nutritional status. Recent medical studies have shown that palm oil, particularly virgin (red) palm oil, can protect against many common health problems, including Alzheimer's. Some of the health benefits include:
Improves blood sugar control Improves nutrient absorption and vitamin and mineral status Aids in the prevention and treatment of malnutrition Supports healthy lung function Supports healthy liver function Helps strengthen bones and teeth Supports eye health Highest natural source of health promoting tocotrienols Helps protect against mental deterioration, including Alzheimer’s disease Richest dietary source of vitamin E and beta-carotene

Tuesday, August 20, 2013

RED PALM OIL A Daily Dose of Vitamins from A Cooking Oil Bruce Fife, ND Palm oil, particularly virgin or “red” palm oil, is a traditional fat that has been a part of the human diet for at least 5000 years. For generations red palm oil has been revered as both a nutritious food and a valuable medicine. It was prized by the pharaohs of ancient Egypt as a sacred food. The oil was so highly valued that it was entombed with the pharaohs so that they would have access to it in the afterlife. Palm oil comes from the fruit of the oil palm (Elaesis guineensis).Originating in tropical Africa, it has now spread throughout much of world. Today it is an important crop in Southeast Asia, West Africa, and South America. Throughout history palm oil has served as the primary source of dietary fat for countless numbers of people. Its nutritional and healing properties have been recognized for generations. Until modern medicine arrived, red palm oil was the remedy of choice for nearly every illness in many parts of Africa. When someone was sick, downing a cup full of palm oil was common. Even today many people in the villages rely on this age old method of treatment. Palm oil is regarded among many as essential in the diet for pregnant and nursing women in order to assure good health for the mother and child. Today, medical doctors are recognizing the value of red palm oil in the treatment and prevention of malnutrition and vitamin deficiency diseases. Governments around the world are incorporating it into programs to wipe out deficiency diseases which are still rampant in many impoverished areas. Red palm oil not only supplies fatty acids essential for proper growth and development, but it is packed with an assortment of vitamins, antioxidants, and other phytonutrients important for good health. Red palm oil gets its name from its characteristic dark red color. The color comes from carotenes such as beta-carotene and lycopene—the same nutrients that give tomatoes and carrots and other fruits and vegetables their rich red and orange colors. Carotenes are valuable nutrients and powerful antioxidants. They are also important because our body can convert them into vitamin A, an essential nutrient. Vitamin A deficiency can cause blindness, weaken bones, lower immunity, and adversely affect learning ability and mental function. Vitamin A is only found in animal foods. Such foods, are too expensive for many people. Carotenes in fruits and vegetables can supply the needed vitamin A if an adequate amount of fat is also consumed. Carotenes require fat for conversion into vitamin A. Unfortunately, those who can’t afford animal products often do not eat much fat either. Populations with ample carotene-rich foods available often suffer from vitamin A deficiency because they don’t get enough fat in their diet. Red palm oil provides a perfect solution. It supplies the needed fat and vitamin A precursors. Red palm oil is the richest dietary source of provitamin A carotenes (beta-carotene and alpha-carotene). It has 15 times more provitamin A carotenes than carrots and 300 times more than tomatoes. This has made it a valued resource in the treatment of vitamin A deficiency. Just one teaspoon a day of red palm oil supplies children with the daily recommend amount of vitamin A. Nursing mothers are encouraged to supplement their diet with palm oil to enrich their milk with the vitamin. Studies show that adding red palm oil into the diet can double or triple the amount of vitamin A in mother’s milk. The children are not only getting the vitamin A they need but other important nutrients as well. Red palm oil is a virtual powerhouse of nutrition. It contains by far, more nutrients than any other dietary oil. In addition to beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, and lycopene it contains at least 20 other carotenes along with vitamin E, vitamin K, CoQ10, squalene, phytosterols, flavonoids, phenolic acids, and glycolipids. Palm oil is one of the richest natural sources of vitamin E. In addition to ordinary vitamin E, it also contains the highest amount of a super potent form of vitamin E known as tocotrienol. There are four tocotrienols. Palm oil contains all of them. These tocotrienols have up to 60 times the antioxidant activity of ordinary vitamin E. The combination of vitamin E, tocotrienols, carotenes, and other antioxidants makes palm oil a super antioxidant food. Red palm oil is loaded with so many nutrients and antioxidants it’s like a natural dietary supplement. In fact, it is currently being encapsulated and sold as a vitamin supplement. The oil is also available in bottles like other vegetable oils for kitchen use. In government programs for the treatment of nutritional deficiencies, palm oil is simply incorporated into the food. It’s easy for a child to get a teaspoon of red palm oil when it is used to cook vegetables or bread. Palm oil is an excellent for cooking and baking. It consists of 50 percent saturated fatty acids, 40 percent monounsaturated fatty acids, and 10 percent polyunsaturated fatty acids. The high saturated and monounsaturated fatty acid content makes palm oil a very heat resistant and stable oil. It has a high smoke point of 437 degrees F. The high saturated fat and antioxidant content makes it extremely resistant to oxidation and free-radical formation. Over the past two decades researchers have painstakingly studied palm oil’s effect on cardiovascular health. The results have been surprising to researchers. Although high in saturated fat, it protects against heart disease. Studies show that adding palm oil into the diet can remove plaque build up in arteries and therefore, reverse the process of atherosclerosis. This has been demonstrated in both animal and human studies. In one study, for instance, 50 subjects were divided into two equal groups. All the participants had been diagnosed with atherosclerosis and had suffered at least one stroke. At the beginning of the study the degree of blockage of their carotid arteries ranged from 15 to 79 percent. Without any other changes to their diets or medications, half of the subjects began taking a daily palm oil supplement. The other half received placebos and served as the control. The degree of atherosclerosis was monitored using ultrasound scans over an 18 month period. In the group receiving palm oil, atherosclerosis was halted in 23 of the 25 subjects. In seven of these subjects atherosclerosis was not only stopped but regressed. In comparison, none of those in the control group showed any improvement, in fact, the condition in 10 of them worsened (Tomeo, 1995). This study demonstrated that palm oil can not only stop, but even reverse atherosclerosis. Removing plaque is not the only way palm oil protects against strokes and heart attacks. Palm oil can also improve cholesterol values. In a study at the University of Illinois College of Medicine researchers demonstrated a 10 percent decrease in total cholesterol in 36 hypercholesterolemic (high cholesterol) subjects given palm oil capsules for four weeks. A follow-up study of 16 subjects resulted in a 13 percent lowering of total cholesterol (Qureshi, 1995). In another study 31 subjects took a palm oil supplement every day for 30 days. No other changes were made to their diets. They continued to eat whatever they desired. The results showed that palm oil supplementation lowered both total cholesterol and LDL (bad) cholesterol in all the volunteers. The magnitude of reduction of total cholesterol ranged from 5 to 35.9 percent and the reduction of LDL cholesterol ranged from 0.9 to 37 percent. What was even more important was the effect the palm oil had on the cholesterol ratio. The cholesterol ratio was reduced in 78 percent of the subjects, demonstrating a highly significant and favorable response to supplementation (Tan, 1991). Palm oil helps maintain proper blood pressure. The high antioxidant content of the oil quenches free radicals and keeps inflammation under control. In one study researchers induced inflammation in the arteries of test animals. Inflammation causes swelling which narrows artery passageways, restricting blood flow to vital organs such as the heart. Half of the animals received palm oil in their diet while the other half served as the control. In the control group artery passageways were severely constricted and 42 percent of the animals died. However, those that received the palm oil showed far less inflammation and constriction resulting in a 100 percent survival rate. Tocotrienols also strengthen the heart so that it can better withstand stress. Researchers can purposely induce heart attacks in lab animals by cutting off blood flow to the heart. This causes severe injury and death. However, if the animals are fed palm oil the survival rate is greatly increased, injury is minimized, and recovery quicker (Esterhuyse, 2005). After looking at studies like this it becomes obvious that palm oil protects against heart disease. This is confirmed in populations where palm oil consumption is particularly high. Heart disease in Malaysia, Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, and Nigeria—where palm oil is a major if not the sole source of visible fat in the daily diet—are among the lowest in the world (Sron, 2005). The high antioxidant content of palm oil makes it a potent anticancer food. Palm tocotrienols are especially benefical in this respect. Antioxidants have long been known to offer protection against various forms of cancer. Tocotrienols being highly potent antioxidants have demonstrated remarkable anticancer properties far superior to most other antioxidants. Studies show palm tocotrienols inhibit the growth of skin, stomach, pancreas, liver, lung, colon, prostate, breast and other cancers. Most of the research to date has been done with breast cancer where tocotrienols show great promise. They not only prevent cancer from taking hold but actively block its growth and initiate apoptosis—a process where diseased cells commit suicide. This is a normal process that is programmed into all of our cells in order to remove old and diseased cells. However, in cancer cells this process is blocked and affected cells continue to multiply and grow without restraint. Ordinary vitamin E, does not induce programmed cell death in cancer cells. Only tocotrienols have this effect. Initial research has been so impressive that cancer researchers have called tocotrienols the most powerful natural anticancer substances known to science (Yano, 2005). That’s quit a bold statement, but illustrates the potential tocotrienols have in cancer prevention and treatment. The antioxidant power of palm oil has also shown to be of benefit in protecting against neurological degeneration. Two of the most significant factors that affect brain function are oxidative stress and poor circulation. Oxidative stress generates free radicals that damage brain and nerve tissue. Poor circulation affects the brain by restricting oxygen and glucose which are vital for proper brain function. Researchers have found correlations between oxidative stress and reduced blood flow to the brain to senile dementia, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, and even schizophrenia. All of these conditions involve brain cell death. Tocotrienols aid the brain by reducing oxidative stress and improving blood flow. Researchers can mimic much of the destruction seen in the above neurological disorders by feeding test animals glutamate—an amino acid that kills brain cells. The primary action of cell death is caused by free radicals. Ordinary vitamin E is not strong enough to prevent glutamate-induced cell death. But palm tocotrienols can quench the destructive action of glutamate. In laboratory studies tocotrienol-treated neurons maintain healthy growth and motility even in the presences of excess glutamate (Khanna, 2003). Research is showing that the antioxidant power of red palm oil can be of help in protecting against a variety of health problems including osteoporosis, asthma, cataract, macular degeneration, arthritis, and liver disease. It can even stunt the processes that promote premature aging. It’s no wonder it was regarded as a sacred food by the ancient Egyptians. Red palm oil is not just for pharaohs, it’s available to everyone. It is sold as a cooking oil and as a dietary supplement at most good health food stores and online. For more information about the health aspects of red palm oil read The Palm Oil Miracle by Dr. Bruce Fife, ND. click here References Esterhuyse, A.J., et al. Dietary red palm oil supplementation protects against the consequences of global ischemia in the isolated perfused rat heart. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2005;14:340-347. Khanna, S. et al. Molecular basis of vitamin E action: tocotrienol modulates 12-lipoxygenase, a key moderator of glutamate-induced neurodegeneration. J Biol Chem 2003;278:43508-43515. Qureshi, A.A., et al. Response of Hypercholesterolemic subjects to administration of tocotrienols. Lipids 1995;30:1171-1177. Sron, B. Palm oil’s track record. Global Oil and Fats 2005;2:24-25. Tan, D.T.S., et al. Effect of a palm-oil-vitamin E concentrate on the serum and lipoprotein lipids in humans. Am J Clin Nutr 1991;53Suppl:1027S-1030S. Tomeo, A.C., et al. Antioxidant effects of tocotrienols in patients with hyperlipidemia and carotid stenosis. Lipids 1995;30:1179-1183. Yano, Y., et al. Induction of cytotoxicity in human lung adenocarcinoma cells by 6-0-carboxypropyl-alpha-tocotrienol, a redox-silent derivative of alpha-tocotrienol. Int J Cancer 2005;115:839-846.
If there is an antithesis to the principles of science-based medicine, it’s probably the Dr. Oz show. In this daytime television parallel universe, anecdotes are evidence. There are no incremental advances in knowledge — only medical miracles. And every episode neatly offers up three or four takeaway health nuggets that, more often than not, seem to leave the audience more ill-informed about health and medicine than they were 30 minutes earlier. After I completed my post on Dr. Oz’s prolonged embrace of the “miracle” that is green coffee bean extract, a number of readers brought me up to speed. Green coffee beans are yesterday’s miracle. The new weight loss miracle for 2013 is red palm oil. This constant drive for miracles must keep the producers in a perpetual panic. They need at least five miracles per week. Having now watched a few episodes, I’m reminded of the classic “That Mitchell and Webb Look” skit where two nutritionists pick a new superfood. It could be just a matter of time until we see white veal profiled as a superfood in a future Dr. Oz episode. If there is a common characteristic of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) proponents who believe themselves to be scientific (and I include Dr. Oz in this group), it is that they extrapolate from weak clinical evidence to grandiose claims by cherry picking the most supportive strands of evidence to give the impression of being evidence-based. They have the belief, and then they look for the supporting evidence to bolster the claim. In short, to paraphrase a quote attributed to Hahns Kuhn, they use scientific evidence like a drunkard uses a light post: for support, not for illumination. As I noted with green coffee bean extract, Dr. Oz extrapolated from ambiguous, preliminary data to recommendations to consume green coffee bean extract as a weight loss strategy. Frankly, the evidence isn’t there, so I didn’t have high expectations with the latest miracle. All I knew going in about palm oil is that it’s used in most industrial food production and the demand for it is linked to massive destruction of tropical rainforests. But who doesn’t want longevity? So I sat down and watched another episode. Dr. Oz’s first miracle solution of 2013 is red palm oil, an amazing fat that helps stop the signs of aging inside and out! — DoctorOz.com Let’s look at the claims made on the show, and then consider the evidence supporting them. I’m quoting liberally from the show so it’s clear exactly what Dr. Oz said, but I recommend you watch both clips for the full effect. This show needs to be seen to be believed. Keep in mind that Dr. Oz is no ordinary daytime television host: he is an accomplished and still active cardiac surgeon, an academic, and a research scientist. He has hundreds of scientific publications to his name. His show has been broadcast since 2009 and he reaches millions every day. He is perceived as a credible authority, because he’s a real health professional. Unfortunately Dr. Oz has a persistent history of giving dubious health advice that doesn’t hold up when it’s checked against the evidence. This episode is all about miracles for 2013 and the segment features Canadian homeopath Bryce Wylde, introduced by Dr. Oz as a “miracle worker and alternative medicine expert”). Oz introduces red palm oil with an argument from antiquity: That red color is perfect because I think of it as a stop sign for aging, inside and out. Did you know that palm trees contain an ancient remedy that can slow down the aging process, fight belly fat, and combat heart disease? There’s a secret inside the flesh of this fruit, extending the warranty of nearly every organ in your body. This mega-oil may very well be the most the most miraculous find of 2013. The purported benefits Wylde mentions include carotene, described as a “a super-powerful antioxidant” and tocotrienols, “a special form of vitamin E, very, very cardioprotective”. Oz is impressed: I think this will actually help protect us against Alzheimer’s… Wylde continues from there, showing a sliced apple that has browned (emphasis added): This apple is just like our brain. When…oxygen from the environment, stress hits it, it will ultimately denature, it will become rotten. We all know the culinary trick…of putting lemon juice juice or lime juice on our fruit salad or apple. That protects it, keeps it white. Well red palm oil does the exact same thing in our brains, protecting it….That special form of tocotrienols we’re talking about, that special form of vitamin E, is actually going to increase blood circulation, it’s going to reduce incidence of dementia and Alzheimer’s, so it’s going to protect our most important organ. The “demo” then moves on to the heart. Dr. Oz asks Wylde to explain why saturated fats protect the heart. Two fake arteries (actually what appears to be sections of bisected PVC sewer pipe) are shown. Both are coated with clumps of white goo. Oz pours some liquid down one pipe. The liquid is viscous and sticks to the goo. Then he pours some red palm oil down the other pipe. It washes the pipe clean. This new biochemical model clearly impresses Dr. Oz: Folks who were using this lowered their bad cholesterol by nearly 40% in one month! Drugs don’t even do this! In a statement on the Dr. Oz website, Wylde elaborates: Over the past two decades, researchers have intensely studied red palm oil’s effect on cardiovascular health and the preliminary results initially baffled scientists. At room temperature, this semi-solid oil seems as likely as lard to clog your arteries. But what might shock you to learn, as it has equally stunned researchers, is that although red palm fruit oil is indeed high in saturated fat, it actually protects against heart disease. Saturated fats behave like a thick molasses through the cardiovascular system, eventually contributing to plaque (atherosclerosis). But studies show that adding palm oil into the diet can remove plaque build-up in arteries and, therefore, reverse the process of plaque and prevent blockages. The demonstration finally moves a piece of fat that Dr. Oz says is our omentum. Wylde notes: Red palm fruit oil goes straight to the liver and gets used up as calories, and might help to reduce your fat tissue concentration, because you’re not storing it, your burning it. Then Dr. Oz ignites a candle, which he likens to other fats, and a sparkler (which explodes) which he likens to red palm oil: There was another study done of women who ate two tablespoons of an oil that was like palm oil. And it helped turn up their metabolism and whittled away this belly fat that so many of you are frustrated by. So at the end of the segment we are left with three distinct, testable claims about red palm oil consumption and supplementation: Red palm oil protects against dementia and Alzheimer’s. Red palm oil reduces bad cholesterol, reduces atherosclerosis, and prevents new blood clots. Red palm oil spot reduces belly fat. Palm Oil If you eat any packaged or prepared foods that contain “vegetable oil”, you’re probably eating palm oil. The palm tree is the source of one of the most widely used industrial oils in the world. Raw palm oil does contain a rich source of carotenoids and vitamin E. Red palm oil is a refined version of raw red palm oil which retains a significant amount of these ingredients. For industrial purposes, however, red palm oil is not ideal. It is described as having a bitter, pronounced flavor which some describe as unpalatable. The dark colour, a consequence of the carotenoids, can discolor prepared foods. Refining raw palm oil further, with bleaching, eliminates the carotenoids and tocoperols. Refined, palm oil is very versatile: it’s stable at high heat, largely tasteless, trans-fat free, and is low cost. With the exception of the carotenoids and vitamin E, red palm oil, and refined palm oil, are essentially the same product: saturated fatty acids palmitic acid (44%), stearic acid (5%) and myristic acid (1%), and the unsaturated fatty acids oleic acid (39%) and linoleic acid (11%). It’s the vitamin content that has driven most of the research into uses for red palm oil. Vitamin A deficiency is a significant public health issue in developing countries [PDF], as major cause of blindness as well as overall mortality. Red palm oil has been studied as a supplement and as part of food fortification to boost vitamin A levels. It seems to be effective and could serve to help fortify the food supply in nations where widespread deficiency exists. Vitamin A deficiency, however is rare in developed countries, though it can still appear in some malabsorbtion-related disease states. When used as a supplement, red palm oil seems to be a good source of the vitamin E compounds as well. Compared to vitamin A, however, vitamin E deficiency is almost unheard of — even in developing countries. Do consumers in developed countries need to routinely supplementation with carotenoids and vitamin E? Here we get into the complexity of diet. Dietary patterns have been examined in observational studies that have suggested that foods high in antioxidants like carotene may offer protection from cardiovascular disease, cancer, and other illnesses. Randomized trials with antioxidants have not borne out the touted benefits of supplements, however, so the most pragmatic advice seems to be that eating a diet of foods that contain these factors is a better approach than using supplements. Given red palm oil is not consumed routinely in populations that have been studied in supplement trials, the overall effect of a diet that includes regular consumption of red palm oil isn’t clear. Unlike the well-studied “Mediterranean Diet” that features olive oil as the primary oil consumed, there have been no similar studies of populations that consume red palm oil routinely as part of their diet. The rationale for specific vitamin E supplementation is even more questionable. The idea for years was “oxidation bad, antioxidant good”. Eating foods that contain sources of vitamin E seems to be beneficial to health. Yet trials with supplements haven’t been shown to protect against heart disease or stroke, and at higher doses may increase the risk of cancer and of overall mortality. On balance the best evidence seems to suggest that diets rich in fruits and vegetables may be protective of different diseases, but specific supplementation may not. What this means if you decide to consume red palm oil isn’t clear — it may be influenced by whether you add it to your existing diet, or if you substitute it for something else. The Evidence Check Dr. Oz’s statements were unambigous and testable. Here is how they stack up against the evidence. Claim 1: Red palm oil protects against dementia and Alzheimer’s There is no direct evidence to substantiate this claim, either with refined palm oil or red palm oil. I couldn’t locate any trial that has prospectively examined this — and I’m not surprised, because studying treatments for the prevention of dementia are notoriously difficult to do, requiring hundreds of patients and years if not decades of follow-up. Alzheimer’s disease is the most common form of dementia, but not the only cause. Antioxidants have been proposed as possible preventative treatments for dementia, given oxidative stress may be a component of the degenerative changes observed with the disease. Trials studying vitamin E supplementation for the prevention of Alzheimer’s disease have shown no effect, though it may have a role in the treatment of established disease. It’s been similarly disappointing with beta-carotene, where no clear benefit has been demonstrated. If we look at the fatty acid components, there’s no evidence suggesting palm oil will have any meaningful effects. Rather what evidence exists suggests negative effects from saturated fats. In contrast to palm oil, the evidence is at least promising for the omega-3 fatty acids, particularly when consumed as fatty fish. The same can be said for the Mediterranean diet. But the usual biases in studying diet confound the results. Overall, there is no convincing evidence to suggest that consuming red palm oil will have any meaningful effect at preventing dementia or Alzheimer’s disease. What limited evidence exists suggests either a neutral or possibly a negative effects from supplementation. Claim 2: Red palm oil reduces bad cholesterol, reduces atherosclerosis, and prevents new clots There is no convincing evidence with red palm oil to substantiate a recommendation to preferentially consume this oil. Studies with palm oil suggest that it can raise LDL and total cholesterol, but the effects are not consistently shown. None of the studies are large, nor do they clearly establish any role for red palm oil as a therapeutic treatment for reducing LDL cholesterol or preventing clots. (Edit: I was unable to find any trial showing a 40% reduction of LDL in one month, but Colby Vorland did in the comments, and the actual results are underwhelming.) Despite the impressive effects Dr. Oz showed with his sewer pipe, the effects in the real world, with real arteries, haven’t been established. When it comes to the antioxidants in red palm oil, there is no convincing data from prospective trials that vitamin E or the carotenoids have any benefit for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Again, the usual recommendations (lots of fruit and vegetables, using monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats instead of trans fats and saturated fats, and eating omega-3 fatty acid-rich foods) have much better evidence behind them. Like claim 1, there is actually some promising evidence with other oils — particular fish oils and the consumption of fatty fish. And again, it’s really not clear that if you want to reduce bad cholesterol, that palm oil is your best choice. Some data suggests palm oil raises total cholesterol and LDL, compared to olive oils. It also may be inferior to sunflower oil. The data are preliminary and no clear effects on lipids have been established. Claim 3: Red palm oil spot reduces belly fat Finally, let’s look at the claim that red palm oil won’t cause belly fat gain and will “melt away” existing belly fat. Spot reduction of fat is a huge red flag for bogus claims. The idea comes from the thought that red palm oil-rich fatty acids are metabolized by the body, and not deposited as fat. Spot reduction is a persistent but unfounded dietary myth that can give unrealistic expectations about weight loss and what constitutes a healthy diet. While weight loss can result in fat loss in different areas of the body at different rates, this is due to genetic effects — not due to any specific treatment. Not surprisingly, there is no direct evidence suggesting red palm oil, or refined palm oil, contributes to a loss of belly fat. Oz may be extrapolating the idea the medium-chain triglyceride oil, when used instead of other oils, can cause weight loss. But MCT oil isn’t red palm oil. There’s been a trial in coconut oil that was unimpressive, showing a 1.4cm difference versus soy oil after 12 weeks. In aggregate, the evidence isn’t impressive, even when coconut oil is used as a substitute for other oils. Whether any of the studies with other oils are relevant to the consumption of red palm oil isn’t known — it hasn’t been directly studied. Certainly if net calorie intake goes up because of specific supplementation, all things being equal, we should not expect any meaningful changes in weight or waist size. On balance, supplementing with or switching oils probably has a trivial effect compared to the big drivers of obesity, like overall energy intake and expenditure. Calories clearly still matter. Substituting oils may not. Other considerations If environmental impact is a factor in your oil selection, palm oil may not be the best option. Orangutan protection advocates are outraged Dr. Oz has endorsed red palm oil, and have launched a campaign to shame him. Says Orangutan outreach: Dr. Oz Declares war on Orangutans Dr Oz and his staff should have done more research before recommending palm oil. In doing so, he has inadvertently declared war on orangutans– along with every other living creature in the jungles of Borneo and Sumatra. While originally from West Africa, today 90% of the global supply of palm oil actually comes from Indonesia & Malaysia. This has come at a tremendous environmental cost. Indonesian and Malaysian forests are being burned to the ground– releasing so much carbon into the atmosphere that Indonesia now ranks 3rd behind China and US in carbon emissions– and it is barely industrialized. The UNEP estimates that the forests of Indonesia are being cleared at a rate of 6 football fields per minute every minute of every day. While this may be the case, it’s unlikely that even Dr. Oz-driven demand for red palm oil is meaningful compared to the current worldwide use of palm oil. With use predicted at 42.6 million tons this year, I’d be surprise if even the Dr. Oz effect will have a big effect on what appears to be a consequence of our already massive consumption of palm oil. Conclusion If there is one thing that really frustrates me about the Dr. Oz show is that he ignores the boring-but-factual and always hypes the gimmicks. Red palm oil is no exception. It’s foolish and short-sighted to declare red palm oil as healthy or beneficial based on the limited data that exists. The history of dietetics and nutrition is replete with cases of extrapolating preliminary data into supplement and dietary advice, only to see population-level data, and good clinical trials later refute it. There is no clearly established need for the routine supplementary consumption of the carotenoids and vitamin E in red palm oil. And you may already have palm oil as a routine part of your diet — perhaps unwittingly. The impact of red palm oil consumption on your health is likely to be insignificant, compared to the big drivers of health. But none of this matters on the Dr. Oz show. Because just as quickly as this post is published, Oz will have moved on to the next dietary fad, leaving consumers who watch his show more confused than ever about what constitutes good health and nutrition. Share this: More Tags: Dr. Oz, palm oil, red palm oil, The Dr. Oz Show Posted in: Nutrition Leave a Comment (29) ↓ 29 thoughts on “The Dr. Oz Red Palm Oil (non-) Miracle” Janet says: January 10, 2013 at 10:47 am Is there nothing to be done about this clown? He makes it even harder to have a conversation with the science illiterate (most people). The minute you get started with something about quacks, they pipe up with the fact that Oz is a medical doctor after all, an acclaimed one at that. It’s difficult to get into long responses about brave maverick docs in the short conversations where the opportunities arise to try to get a shruggie to think or the consequences of his actions or a friend who is trying to lose weight to understand the complexities of nutritional studies. You only have to look at the massive ignorance displayed in the comments to a NY Times article on the burgeoning flu epidemic this morning to see the vastness of popular ignorance–it’s all a plot by BigPharma to sell vaccine! We’ve been “quietly coping” with flu for millions of years!. I posted one rebuttal, but the task was overwhelming and I soon gave up. windriven says: January 10, 2013 at 10:50 am “Vitamin A deficiency is a significant public health issue in developing countries” As I understand it, vitamin A is abundant in foods such as spinach, squash, sweet potatoes, collards and turnip greens. These are generally easily cultivated without the enormous carbon footprint associated with the palm oil trade. Perhaps the “magic” of red palm oil in reducing belly fat has less to do with red palm oil than the low per capita GDP of Indonesia (~U$D4700 per annum). WilliamLawrenceUtridge says: January 10, 2013 at 12:00 pm Because: a) Our insides are exactly like apples b) No, our insides are exactly like pipes c) The palm oil that goes in your mouth is exactly the same as what flows in your veins I’d heard the claim that the medium-chain triglycerides found in plant sources (virgin coconut and palm oils) were processed differently than animal and trans fats. Naturally this has been packaged and sold as the cure for all disease. Curious to know if it is true. nybgrus says: January 10, 2013 at 12:04 pm The pipe demonstration made me laugh. Perhaps we should have our interventional cardiologists use red palm oil during heart catheterizations to flush out all those nasty plaques. Oh wait… the oil flushed the crap out of the pipe, where did it go? Some other place to cause an infarct, probably. Maybe it isn’t such a good idea after all… BobbyG says: January 10, 2013 at 12:13 pm Cited this post on my REC blog today, and shouted it out on Twitter. BTW, you folks need to have better visibility on Wiki Docs. They have a section on CAM. The Dave says: January 10, 2013 at 12:18 pm “Because: a) Our insides are exactly like apples b) No, our insides are exactly like pipes c) The palm oil that goes in your mouth is exactly the same as what flows in your veins” Perhaps it needs IV infusion then… “I’d heard the claim that the medium-chain triglycerides found in plant sources (virgin coconut and palm oils) were processed differently than animal and trans fats. Naturally this has been packaged and sold as the cure for all disease. Curious to know if it is true.” I attempted to ask a similar question on the other Dr. Oz post this morning (before this one was posted). I would love to know as well. WilliamLawrenceUtridge says: January 10, 2013 at 12:25 pm @The Dave – I edited the coconut oil page on wikipedia and thus saw what the proponents were useing to support their “miracle cure” claims. As Dr. Gorski would say, very thin gruel; a couple short-term studies in South Asia, some in vitro stuff and short term bloodwork outcomes. It does look like an interesting question – MCFA may be handled differently than other types. It genuinely does seem to raise HDL. Whether that translates into improved longevity and health is another question. This has a brief discussion of coconut oil, pointing out that a) it does seem to change HDL and b) it is unclear if it may be promoting atherosclerosis through other means. From what I know (which ain’t much) it doesn’t seem to be the case that India and the Philippines have noticeably lower rates of heart disease despite consuming considerable coconut oil. Calli Arcale says: January 10, 2013 at 1:26 pm nybgrus — oh, if only there had been a heart surgeon there to point out how crazy that whole PVC pipe demonstration was….. bluedevilRA says: January 10, 2013 at 1:52 pm “Our brains are like apples. They denature in response to oxygen and stress.” I love it when homeopaths attempt neuroscience. Harriet Hall says: January 10, 2013 at 1:56 pm Some people’s brains are like apples. We call them fruitcakes. DavidRLogan says: January 10, 2013 at 4:33 pm This is interesting. WLU, please correct me if I’m wrong, it sounds like your views on coconut oil have become somewhat more favorable (compared to a discussion 6 or so months ago). Is that fair? I like coconut oil and will continue to use it (noticed some bloodwork changes, but as Dr. Hall would likely say I have no idea if that was actually caused by coconut oil or something else). I do agree it is pretty irresponsible for someone like Dr. Oz to recommend one of these ‘food miracle cures’ (if it is fair to call it that). Lytrigian says: January 10, 2013 at 4:49 pm Drano cleans out pipes too, but I doubt it’s a miracle cure for anything. WilliamLawrenceUtridge says: January 10, 2013 at 6:29 pm @DavidRLogan I certainly don’t think there’s enough evidence to support it being miracle food, melting fat, or having essentially pharmaceutical effects on the body. There is some prior probability suggesting coconut oil is not the same thing as saturated fat from animals – but certainly not enough evidence to suggest eating it in large volumes. It’s like all food – neither sacred nor profane, merely an ingredient. Use coconut oil because of its taste or cooking properties, not because you think it’ll keep you young forever. That’s what Big Pharma is for :) brightumbra says: January 10, 2013 at 6:40 pm “This mega-oil may very well be the most the most miraculous find of 2013.” So, it’s all down hill from here? … Also I tried to come up with a pun connecting red palm oil and face-palming (what I’ve done at nearly every Oz quote) but have thus far failed… Anyone care to help me out? =) DevoutCatalyst says: January 10, 2013 at 7:06 pm Can’t help you, but gotta wonder in anyone is greasing his palm. nutsci says: January 10, 2013 at 7:07 pm I asked Bryce for a reference for the 40% LDL-C reduction. He emailed me a bunch of references instead of answering me directly, but I this might be the one Dr. Oz is talking about/Bryce agreed with: http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/53/4/1027S.long It is a small trial using a concentrated supplement, no placebo group and one participants experienced a 37% reduction in LDL-C, though the low end range was from -0.9%. Since the authors apparently didn’t report the mean of this but did show data for each participant individually I ran the t-test myself and the mean change was -15.6%, a far cry from 40%. This study contradicts his claims on HDL and total cholesterol. Davdoodles says: January 10, 2013 at 9:50 pm “Wylde continues from there, showing a sliced apple that has browned (emphasis added): “This apple is just like our brain.”" the snark writes itself. . Janet says: January 11, 2013 at 9:44 am My cholesterol (LDL and HDL) normalized after losing 45 lbs, which I have kept off for seven years now. No coconut/palm oil required. All you have to do to see what Oz, et al, are touting is go to the co-op or Whole Foods and see what has appeared that wasn’t there a year ago. For some time now it’s been gluten-free everything and COCONUT/PALM OILS–the “red” part is all that is new with Oz. My woo friends have all been on the coconut oil kick for some time now–and they’re still fat. I don’t know about their cholesterol levels because they do not see “allopathic” physicians and only rely on saliva tests from compounding pharmacies–and thermography, of course, in place of mammograms. Even if coconut oil DOES lower cholesterol (and raise HDL), consuming more than very small quantities will not contribute to weight control, so what’s the point? Someone mentions a study using a “concentrated supplement”, but I bet it has a lot of calories. wdygyp says: January 11, 2013 at 9:53 am The cynic in me thinks that this constant chase for “miracles” and its inherent sensationalism is what the audience demands – simple answers to complex questions. bcs says: January 11, 2013 at 9:56 am @ Dave medium-chain triglycerides are composed of glycerol with the addition of 3 fatty acids which have 6-12 carbons (vs long chain fatty acids with <12 C). Once those fatty acids are cleaved from glycerol they enter the same metabolic pathway that the body uses to process fats, beta oxidation. The usual pathway for fatty acid metabolism is that the FAs are imported into the mitochondria through conjugation to a molecule called carnitine since they can't cross membranes by themselves. The carnitine is then switched out for CoA and the FA + CoA is shortened until you eventually get acetyl CoA. There are some additional steps if the FA is unsaturated or for very long chain lengths. MCT can be absorbed directly from the intestine and they are rapidly oxidized, but they use the same beta oxidation pathway that all the other fats do (although they can get into the mitochondra without using the carnitine shuttle). Maybe positive effects are related more to storage than catabolism? Karl Withakay says: January 11, 2013 at 11:32 am “Then Dr. Oz ignites a candle, which he likens to other fats, and a sparkler (which explodes) which he likens to red palm oil:” To Dr. Oz, I say the following: You’ve done enough. Have you no sense of decency, sir? At long last, have you left no sense of decency? You have seen fit to sell out, and if there is any justice in this universe, it will do neither you nor your cause any good. Amalthea says: January 11, 2013 at 11:42 am Not only will it do him no good, it could actually cause harm. Unfortunately my search skills are quite meager so I’m coming up blank. Some months ago I was told about what I think was a news report about government subsidized cooking oil for the poor in Jamaica. From what I was told they were switching back to soybean oil after having previously switched to palm oil due to the lower cost of the palm oil. The about face was supposed to be due to a large increase in cardiac incidents after the change to palm oil. Quill says: January 11, 2013 at 3:20 pm Sparklers and PVC tubes filled with goop? Really? Dr. Oz is starting to sound like he sings nothing but Tom Waits’ song “Small Change: Step Right Up” and recites nothing but George Carlin’s “Advertising Lullaby.” He is actually replicating the tricks used by the real-time snake oil and patent medicine con men of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. History repeats, and this time in Dolby Surround. OrangAware says: January 12, 2013 at 9:07 am Thank you for this very informative and clarifying article!! I have some real issues with Dr. Oz and his side kick, Bryce Wylde regarding their promotion of palm oil but this is much bigger than Dr. Oz!! They are just tools of an industry that is using whatever means it can to clean up their tarnished image. There is a very calculated greenwashing campaign being perpetrated by the palm oil industry to pretty up it’s image and they have hired big, powerful lobby/PR firms to do a number on the American people – and they seem to be doing their jobs in using Dr. Oz and Wylde to promote this image!! One big roadblock for them is the EPA’s decision to disqualify palm oil-based fuels from the Renewable Fuels Standard. They are lobbying hard to get this decision reversed as well as scam the public into believing that palm oil is healthy for both people and the environment. I disagree a bit when you say that “it’s unlikely that even Dr. Oz-driven demand for red palm oil is meaningful compared to the current worldwide use of palm oil. With use predicted at 42.6 million tons this year, I’d be surprise if even the Dr. Oz effect will have a big effect on what appears to be a consequence of our already massive consumption of palm oil.” On the surface that may be right – The number of people running out to buy into the “miracle” may not amount to much in the quantity of palm oil sold, but the millions of viewers who find these two quacks as credible, now have the impression that palm oil is good. The articles regurgitating his endorsement of palm oil are spreading across the web like wildfire. This is a score for the palm oil industry and their PR firms. The story is out there and the harm has been done. They have touted the benefits (which you clearly outline as false) without equal attention to the environmental consequences. Any good doctor would explain the side effects of prescribed “miracle”. The side effects of palm oil production is devastating to the planet by means of catastrophic deforestation, which contributes greatly to the climate change crisis, as well as contributing to the annihilation of countless numbers of species of critically endangered animals like orangutans, sun bears and tigers. One cannot recommend palm oil without explaining the harm to the environment. One cannot casually mention “sustainable” without stressing the importance of sustainability. Most people may not be aware of the cost to the environment, to plants and animals, and to indigenous peoples. It is his responsibility to inform them. Thank you for helping to inform them, even if he won’t! peicurmudgeon says: January 17, 2013 at 1:05 pm Here is a look at the questionable legality of the claims Oz makes on the Canadian airwaves. http://www.skepticnorth.com/2013/01/dr-oz-bryce-wylde-and-the-canadian-law-against-false-or-misleading-news/ Pingback: Science-Based Medicine » The Dr. Oz Red Palm Oil (non-) Miracle « The Optimal HealthCare Group Pingback: Red Palm Oil And Why I believe Oz Is Not A Reputable Alternative Care Physician « The Optimal HealthCare Group Jann Bellamy says: January 17, 2013 at 4:08 pm Rainforest Alliance petition asking Oz to stop pushing red palm oil due to habitat destruction: http://ran.org/act/dr-oz/?e=137827&t=e&u=46051010 PeteKl says: January 18, 2013 at 1:52 am >Studies with palm oil suggest that it can raise LDL and total cholesterol, but the effects are not consistently shown. I don’t want to sound too critical (overall your post is excellent), but I’m a little surprised that you are hedging on the issue of palm oil and cholesterol. As you pointed out, palm oil is a saturated fat – palmitic acid (44%), stearic acid (5%) and myristic acid (1%) – and it is well established that saturated fats raise serum cholesterol levels. The effect of the various fatty acids on serum cholesterol has been studied extensively for at least 50 years. Several researchers including Keys, Hegsted and Mensink and Katan have even developed formulas to calculate the effect of saturated fat on serum cholesterol. For the most part all of them came up with the same numbers. Katan, Zock and Mensink listed the four most hypercholesterolemic fats typically found in the western diet as follows (from worst to least): palm-kernel oil coconut oil butter palm oil Yes saturated fat does seem to cause a small rise in HDL levels (aka “good” cholesterol), but I have yet to find any credible evidence that shows it compensates for the damage caused by (often dramatic) increases in LDL levels (aka “bad” cholesterol). I understand your desire to maintain a sense of scientific skepticism, but in this case I think you might be creating more doubt and confusion than you intended. Effects of fats and fatty acids on blood lipids in humans: an overview (1994) Katan, Zock and Mensink http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/60/6/1017S.long Effect of dietary fatty acids on serum lipids and lipoproteins. A meta-analysis of 27 trials (1992) Mensink and Katan http://atvb.ahajournals.org/content/12/8/911.long Quantitative effects of dietary fat on serum cholesterol in man (1965) Hegsted http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/17/5/281.long Comments are closed. Categories Select Category Archives